The volatile organic compounds benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BTEX) occur naturally in crude oil and seawater near natural gas and other hydrocarbon deposits. Manmade BTEX sources include chemical manufacturing, vehicle emissions, accidental spills and underground storage tank leaks into soil and groundwater.
With composition driving natural gas pricing, a traditional C1-C5 separation with C6+ backflush grouping is no longer sufficient to quantify BTU. The accurate identification of longer chain constituents, along with fixed gases and corrosive sulfur species, such as H2S, significantly improves gas value. While Gas chromatography (GC) is the method of choice for standard natural gas measurement, GC–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is better suited for more challenging extended analyses.
Rapid, accurate determination of ethers, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, present in many hydrocarbon process streams, is a recurring challenge. Even the residual traces of these compounds can inactivate costly, high-yield catalysts commonly used for large-scale polymer production. Unfortunately, todays standard gas chromatography (GC) methods for oxygenate analysis are not suitable for ever decreasing detection limits.
Natural, refinery, landfill, sewage digester and other fuel gases contain volatile sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and mercaptans that are corrosive, poisonous and subject to regulation. Municipal distribution of the methane fraction as fuel requires both production and distribution facilities to accurately determine sulfur content. Fuel gases are also feedstocks for polymer production where the catalysts involved are poisoned by sulfur compounds.
|Technology||High Pressure Mass Spectrometry (HPMS)|
|Size||43 x 28 x 30cm (17 x 11 x 12 in)|
|Power Requirements||24VDC from external power supply 100-240VAC 50/60Hz|
|Operating Temperature||0-40°C (32-104°F)|
|Mass Spectrometer||Microscale Ion Trap|
|Ionization Source||Non-radioactive, internal glow discharge ionization (70eV), dual polarity|
|Mass Range||15-450 amu|
|Mass Resolution||1 amu (nominal)|
|Trap Operating Temperature||120°C|
|Operating Vacuum||1-4 Torr|
|Injector Manifold Temp||350°C Max|
|Sample Injection Modes||Manual/Valve/Autosampler|
|Column Heating||Resistive, Ambient – 400°C|
|Column Ramp Rate||0.1-5°C/second|
|GC Detectors||FID/TCD 350°C Max|
|Software||JetStream system control, data acquisition & processing software|